Traditional methods of seed storage

TECHNIQUES OF SEED STORAGE – TRADITIONAL METHODS

Objectives of topic:

1. Importance of seed storage
2. Storage of traditional seeds
3. Seed storage equipment
4. Seed storage management

Importance of seed storage:

There is a tremendous loss of produce after harvesting. This loss is more prevalent in India. These losses should be reduced to make use of maximum produce. Post harvest losses are huge at farmer level, so preventive measures also needed at farmer level.

Most of the postharvest losses are occurring while threshing, transportation and storage. 10% of total postharvest losses are due to rodents, birds, fungus and moisture. Added to these mixing of pebbles and dust also reduce quality of seeds.

Seed storage methods:

1. Certain pulses can be stored by mixing tricalciumphosphate. It will not cause any harm to animals
and humans. It prevents pest attack.
2. Grains can be stored by mixing 1-2% of plant related components such as neem leaves, neem roots,
neem seeds, custard apple seed powder etc

Containers/bags that can regulate Moisture:

1. Aluminum containers
2. Polythene bags
3. Plastic containers

Containers/bags that can withstand moisture:

1. Gunny bags with polythene layer
2. Wooden containers/bamboo containers
3. Pots
4. Cement containers

Techniques of seed and grain storage:

Seed

Grain

1. Moisture: Quality of seeds will depend on
moisture. Seeds have to be dried up to minimum
level of moisture. Total loss of moisture will
affect seed germination. If moisture content is
more pest and disease incidence is more

1.Moisture content is not required for grain

storage but excessive moisture will increase

incidence of pests and diseases

 

2.Seeds should be
treated before storage

2.Treatment is not necessary for gains, but
pulses

can
be stored with treating them oil

3. Seed storage
places should be dry.

3.Mixing of different varieties of grains will
not

be a
problem

4.
Care should be taken to protect hylum 


4.Loss of hylum is not a problem

Seed storage – Management:

Following measures are required to reduce pest and disease incidence:
1. Storage structures should be cool and free from moisture
2. Seeds should be protected from microbes, pests, diseases and rodents
3. Dried seeds should be stored to reduce moisture
4. Storage place should be treated by neem based extracts or fuming with neem leaves
5. Gunny bags/containers used for seed storage should be treated by fumigation with neem leaves.
Gunny bags should be soaked in 5% neem decoction and dried before storing seeds.
6. Jowar seeds can be stored after filling into gunny bags by keeping them in 4-6mts pit and cover them with soil
7. Dried pulses can be stored in bags by keeping Ocimum leaves in bags.

Seed storage techniques:

1. Paddy/wheat/millets:
These can be stored in oval shaped or square shaped earthen pots or containers made with bamboo. Dried neem leaves can be placed in the container as a layer to avoid pest infestation. Bamboo containers can be plastered with dung. These containers should be placed above 12 inches from ground.

2. Maize/Jowar:
Dried cobs of Maize or Jowar can be stored by hanging them to a pole of 3-4mts.
Care should be taken to protect them from rains.

3. Vegetable seeds:
Brinjal/chilies/Bhendi etc should be stored as pods/fruits. These pods /fruits can be
stored by keeping them in a cloth and hanging them to roof of the house. Frequent fumigation will keep them free from pests and diseases.

Seed treatment:

Paddy:
1. Take water in container by filling it to ¾ and place an egg in it
2. Add salt into it until the egg is floated
3. Keep Paddy seeds in it and remove floating seeds
4. Take the seeds after soaking of seeds for 15mints and wash them with fresh water 5. Allow seeds to dry under shade

Groundnut:
1. Soak the leaves of Lantana in warm water for whole night
2. Add 100grs of jaggery to the decoction
3. Add this decoction to Groundnut seed and allow them to dry under shade

Jowar and Bajra:
1. Add small quantity of Asafoetida to 1lt water
2. Soak the seeds in this water for 15mints and allow them to dry under shade